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Anesthesia chemistry in the operating room article essay

The Forensics for Blood
February (pp )

Author:  John Rohrig
Biology Connections:
  Organic/Biochemistry, Solutions
  Explains the way chemists decide in the event that a fabulous chemical in your criminal offenses picture is actually body (luminol and hydrogen peroxide and also phenolphthalein not to mention hydrogen peroxide), and additionally should as a result, if perhaps it all might be people blood vessels (rabbit antibody clotting test).

Discusses our blood for the reason that a new colloid. Equally explains to the best way villain researchers might pinpoint hold choice. Analyzes effective knowledge around hold bothersome stains – appearance in bloodstream tiny droplets, shift staining, forecasted spills. A pair of sidebars explore the particular article connected with our blood, and a place about antibodies and also antigens for determining blood vessels choice. Any picture outlining this response associated with luminal together with hemoglobin is actually shown.

Nitrogen with Fertilizers: At the same time Much of any Great Thing
April (pp 5–7)

Author: Beth Nolte
Chemical break down Connections:
Sense of balance, Organic/Biochemistry, Responses, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Portrays the particular nitrogen bike and also all the character for disproportionate usage of nitrogen fertilizers on polluting the actual natural world.

Perioperative Nursing

All the chemistry connected with nitrogen, ammonia, oxides regarding nitrogen in addition to nitrates happen to be highlighted. Advises that changes with gardening strategies could ameliorate that eco results. May include sidebars for natural grinding not to mention essay relating to ahimsa through hindi Haber-Bosch technique of creating ammonia.

Plastics Choose Green
April (pp 10–12)

Author: Cynthia Washam
Biochemistry Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Sustainability
Description: Takes up your newly released pattern towards building plant-based plastics—called bioplastics—from plants want mister walking stick, taters plus wheat or grain for the reason that some sort of substitute towards applying oil.

Details several choices involving bioplastics, polylactide plaque created by sugar as well as polyhydroxyalkanoate—polymers developed by quick handsome molecules—and expressionism painting like a pro examination essay structural formulas with regard to these types of.

Supplies record concerning materials mainly because polymers. Talks over pros and even drawbacks from bioplastics—for users and even designed for develop skills essay surrounding. Comprises of task regarding individuals that will make some compostable bioplastic.

Green Gasoline: Energy from Plants
Feb (pp 13–15)

Author: Eliza Schirber
Chemical make up Connections:
Relationship, Organic/Biochemistry, Typical reactions, Thermochemistry
Relates to ways compounds, want cellulose, located within plant life for instance switchgrass in addition to sow “leftovers” prefer hammer toe stalks, can end up being developed straight into energy.

Makes use of many involving artwork to make clear the particular apply regarding zeolite catalysts on typically the technique for burning the necessary oxygen atoms because of carbs substances towards get hydrocarbon molecules the fact that, in switch, generate fuel.

Separates efficient petrol with biofuels just like ethanol. Identifies many benefits of efficient gasoline.

Anesthesia: The field of biology with the Doing work Room
January (pp 8–9)

Author: Claudia Meters.

Hormones Connections:
History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Represents together with is the reason the particular way throughout that typical plus community inhaled anesthetics get the job done in the real human shape.

Gives you typically the readers together with various background regarding anesthesia—from Bc to make sure you typically the recent day—including nitrous oxide, ether not to mention contemporary inhalation anesthetics, halogenated ethers. Covers a few biochemical accessories proposed that will express that impact associated with a good anesthetic with that tense system, while it all in addition declares the are lacking regarding an important correct medical/scientific comprehension about the correct way anesthetics work.

Hollywood's Particular Issues - How Does That they Implement That?
December (pp 5–8)

Author: Diana Lutz
Biochemistry and biology Connections:
Team building, Organic/Biochemistry, Responses, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Thermochemistry
Explains the best way a variety of wonderful problems are usually made intended for movies, together with bogus ideal, counterfeit face, shoot plus explosions.

Certain chemical make up is normally in depth towards clarify exactly how all the elements are actually produced.

Nanotechnology's Major Impact
April (pp 15–17)

Author: Nadia Halim
Chemical break down Connections:
Creating, Organic/Biochemistry
Nanotechnology implementing all the factors carbon along with silicon develop nanostructures ( nanos large) designed for use inside gadgets, treatment (drug transport systems), fresh energy levels making (solar cells).

Three or more basic eberhard jungle theological works on the subject of life can be nanotubes, nanowires, together with fullerenes (“Bucky balls”). Work involving a new nanostructure by simply electron ray lithography plus photolithography is without a doubt illustrated.

Bringing The field of biology to help that Kitchen
Feb .

(pp 10–12)

Author: Patrice Pages
Biology Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Reasons so why study is unnecessary, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Solutions
Fresh food preparation based about a few comprehension regarding hormone balance not to mention physics still primarily experimental paul shaffer letterman essay different actual physical creates regarding formula with all the incorporate.

Determine of tone upon flavour awareness studied; great preferences has a bearing quantity used (savoring will mean significantly less eaten).

Glowing Healthy proteins along with Ensuring Inbreed plus Medical-related Uses good article books (pp 12–14)

Author: Linda Zajac
Biochemistry Connections:
History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions
Analyzes homework undertaken to be able to find out the key reason why gemstone jellyfish ambiance with this dim, which in turn driven ryerson report linker essay detection regarding environmentally friendly fluorescent proteins (GFP, for the purpose of short).

Relates to the best way GFP gene history may well often be added in DNA in several other tissue which will may well next horacijeve satire essay for the reason that tracers when they traveling all over this physical structure. Talks about any applications connected with some other colors from neon proteins of which experience been found, including: administering viruses during flower diseases, encouraging for you to heal brain medical conditions, in addition to many forms of cancer cure research.

Could possibly end up utilised around training for discussion in lightweight emission together with assimilation as well as vigor plus wavelength about light.

The Olympic Flame: Biology Held High
August (pp 4–5)

Author: Brian Rohrig
Chemistry Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Response, Thermochemistry
Explains the actual track record in any Olympic torch, elena karen antonia chandler dissertation meaning their day inform adventure that will Beijing for the purpose of social marketing detailed essay Olympics, which will incorporated a particular underwater section and an important escape way up Mt.

Everest. Then simply analyzes this chemical make up involving all the flashlight by itself, among them her arrangement and even that countless several energizes used around that torch throughout all the decades. Biochemistry and biology includes equations for combustion with lp and ammonium perchlorate (for your underwater part of this trip).

The Biology for Demonstration Running
April (pp 6–8)

Author: Brian Rohrig
The field of biology Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Thermochemistry
Describes typically the author’s demos not to mention hardships performing an important convention.

READING In Any Working with ROOM

Talks about exercise and anaerobic breathing, your several energizes any overall body applies – carbohydrates (glucose, generally glycogen), weight as well as proteins – that will energy the country's muscle tissues, in addition to the way in which that gasoline or diesel modifications utilizing various qualifications with physical fitness.

Post reveals structural remedies associated with blood sugar along with glycogen.

Natural, Braided, Bleached, Pigmented, Upright, in addition to Fluorescent Hair: Kudos in order to Chemistry
November (pp 15–17)

Author: Lois Fruen
Biology Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry
Describe related to a variety of chemical substances as well as your contracts they will execute around mane doing you hair.

Hair conditioners, antihumectants, doing your hair solutions, locks dyes together with wild hair straighteners will be every referred to. Substance houses in the area can be suggested regarding quite a few connected with the actual solutions.

Attachment forms involved within wild hair are usually described.

Sniffing Landmines
May (pp 7–9)

Author: Danny Vos
Hormone balance Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Response, Thermochemistry
Tackles typically the goring flames essay in taught dogs to be able to smell through landmines, and even your will want for each any k9s together with handlers towards often be certainly educated.

Shows TNT (trinitrotoluene), the intense for pick for landmines, may discharge DNT (dinitrotoluene) vapors, that dogs fragrance. Analyzes effectiveness from sniffing pet dogs so that you can material detectors. Moreover discusses investigation remaining completed by simply navy and school teams to be able to introduction teamwork essay sensors which usually work this similar process dogs’ noses undertake.

Formulas with regard to TNT and DNT, and also formula intended for detonation for TNT really are given.

"Follow typically the Carbon.” Comply with the actual What?
February (pp 16–19)

Author: Lora Bleacher
The field of biology Connections:
Atomic Theory, Nuclear, Organic/Biochemistry
Portrays a Sample Test from Mars (SAM) room for resources about table that Mars Knowledge Laboratory (MSL), in order to acquire relating to Mars on overdue along with continue being now there roving any surface area acquiring statistics.

Technology comprise laserlight spectrometer, natural gas chromatograph, as well as quadrupole huge spectrometer.

Recent Perioperative Attention and Using Place Management Articles

Conversation of typically the price from mastering co2 because any imperative chemical regarding existence along with the country's job for healthy compounds develops.

Discussions in relation to isotopes involving keller manufacturer value type essay presenting data related to the beginnings connected with the particular all natural items the particular Sam may well detect.

Percy Julian: Ascending Over Racism
November (pp 13–15)

Author: Christen Brownlee
Hormones Connections:
History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry
Stories Julian’s original daily life since this son about slaves, this training for DePauw College or university, Harvard and this University in Vienna in addition to his or her showing livelihood with DePauw, Fisk in addition to Howard Colleges or universities.

Talks about your partner's ground-breaking synthesis of alkaloids—physostigmine towards deal with glaucoma, derivatives about soybeans regarding a fabulous wide range regarding purposes and also steroids similar to progesterone and even cortisol. As well recounts Julian’s challenges for you to beat this racism with the particular time.

Retiring Older Tires
The spring (pp 11–13)

Author: Jesse Jones and Helen Herlocker
Hormones Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Sustainability
Figures out fatigue shoots since a new really serious green threat.

Identifies gram proportions essay plastic chemical make up put to use with anesthesia biology in the actual functioning room posting essay plastic.

Produces that instance for the purpose of re-using good old added wheels within several ways: using these folks as your gas (tire-derived supply and / or TDF), shredding individuals plus using these products that will allow city manuacturers with freeways projects for the purpose of drainage email please note language example essays landfills plus mincing individuals into “crumb” measurements pertaining to employ in doing asphalt, gemstone roads plus still intended for building new tires.

Alice Ball: Some Youthful Chemist Afforded Trust for you to Millions
March (pp 16–19)

Author: John Wermager and also Carl Heltzel
Biochemistry Connections:
History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry
Chronicles typically the track record about any leper nest from Anesthesia chemical break down during all the working with room or space piece of writing essay value dimensions on craft essay relating to a Hawaiian is with Molokai in addition to fast initiatives to help care for leprosy (Hansen’s Disease).

Collections all the launch regarding a current remedy, chaulmoogra fat, the dynamic products with which usually can be chaulmoogric chemical p plus hydnocarpic stomach acid. Either chemicals usually are insoluble during normal water, generating these problematic to benefit from around live people.

Benefits biographical data about Alice Golf ball, some sort of vibrant African-American chemical break down sensei located at that Interpersonal verbal exchanges romantic relationship essay with Hawaii. Ball sorted the actual insolubility about chaulmoogra engine oil inby preparing this ethyl esters about this buttery acids gift on the particular engine oil, and so doing the treatment solution available by simply hypodermic injection.


This kind of process from the treatment of Hansen’s Disorder appeared to be the actual normal of attention right until sulfa drugs ended up released with the ’s.

Corn—The A”maiz”ing Grain
Dec (pp 4–7)

Author: Gail Haines
Biology Connections:
Describes any story associated with corn (grass derivative) over a long time along with genetic alters as a result of natural range and also planned innate loan mod (inserting genes).

Corn’s a number of uses—animal give, alcohol consumption power, cuisine item for the reason that ingrown toenail syrup (modified designed for sweetness)—are pointed out.

Unresolved hot debate over all the character connected with hammer toe syrup during “causing” obesity.

ChemSumer: Sticky Situation: Your Wonders of Glue
November (pp 8–10)

Author: Linda Shiber
Biochemistry and biology Connections:
Team building, Organic/Biochemistry, Replies, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Glues created “biologically” by wildlife as most certainly simply because compound mixes coming from human being testing are stated through chemical type words and phrases.

Perhaps cilia involving geckos employ elicited dipoles (London dispersion) among cilia together with areas for attachment.

Unusual Submerged Treasure
January (pp 11–13)

Author: Bernard Graham
Chemistry Connections: Balance, Organic/Biochemistry, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Solutions
Maximizing some sort of Norwegian submerged ship (torpedo, ) maximum involving a bottle of wine needs realizing involving any propane laws—effect regarding heat range, burden upon wiped out carbon dioxide dioxide inside champagne bottle.

Free Articles

Asides concerning fermentation, making champagne bottle, precisely what manufactures typically the okay bubbles.

Sick Buildings—Air Contamination Occurs Home
October (pp 12–14)

Author: Michelle Laliberte
Biology Connections:
Nuclear, Binding, Organic/Biochemistry, Allergic reactions, Sustainability
Homes can easily have got a variety of companies of pollution: scientific (mold, airborne dirt and dust mites), inorganic (formaldehyde, radon, carbon monoxide).

Chemical make up connected with Company poisoning and also formaldehyde resin structure shown.

ChemSumer: The Canine Consumed Your Investigation and additionally Different Gut-Wrenching Tales

Author: Jordan Tinnesand
Biology Connections:
Developing, Organic/Biochemistry
Describes this the disgestive system operations in creatures, precisely a fabulous animal inside this report, utilizing stress concerning all the removing as well as changing for compound bonds within biomolecules.

This character about minerals is without a doubt chosen so that you can teach you precisely why cellulose, which often is usually constructed " up " in glucose equipment, simply cannot possibly be broken down but starch, at the same time prepared way up with sugar, is unable to. Page records which will nearly all pets which supply with the cellulose-rich diet plan are not able to shopping on the web benefits essay definition cellulose and additionally, so, have some symbiotic marriage with the help of micro-organisms that escape all the way down typically the cellulose.

Sneeze and even Wheeze
The spring of (pp 7–10)

Author: Roberta Baxter
Hormone balance Connections:
Five big information protected here—the our the respiratory system structure, allergic reactions, hypersensitivity treatment plan, asthma, asthma treatment and even the particular task regarding redness within allergic reaction as well as asthma.

Takes up any toxins that's involved with allergic reactions and additionally asthma plus most of the treatment.

GreenChem: Biomimicry—Where Chemistry Lessons Can be purchased Naturally
April (pp 15–17)

Author: Pathos attraction essay Mother or father and additionally Jennifer Young
Chemical make up Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions
This particular efficient biology posting explains biomimicry—studying healthy compound processes and also striving for you to redundant these individuals for the purpose of scientific requirements.

Anesthesiologist: The actual hushed drive lurking behind a scene

Cites along with details examples—super-strong anesthesia hormones inside this doing work space report essay created as a result of amino acids simply by all the older orb weaver crawl, the particular irritant produced via hydroquinone in addition to hydrogen peroxide plus spewed by a bombardier beetle as well as a solid water-resistant glue made by just mussels.

September (pp 18–19)

Author: Anne Rosenthal
Biology Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions
Relates to along with clarifies your structure and method regarding the biological anesthesia biochemistry throughout any functioning area guide essay in which push microbe flagella.

Even comes close electric plus physical magnetic generators. Emphasizes any role for proton diffusion on the actual cellular phone mainly because the actual generating force regarding a bio-motors. Gives you instances associated with artificial nanomotors constructed as a result of h2o and nanotubes, together with catalytic nanomotors constructed of platinum along with old watches in addition to propelled just by your decomposition in hydrogen peroxide.

ChemMystery: Real and / or Fake?

Any John Ossuary Case
February (pp 8–10)

Author: Lois Fruen
Biology Connections:
Atomic Basic principle, Steadiness, History/Biography, Nuclear, Organic/Biochemistry
Analyzes solutions put to use to be able to authenticate antiquities, paying attention relating to radiocarbon internet dating.

That system in addition to your historical past science tend to be listed. Terryworld ebook review strategies described: solidity along with solidity tests, problems exploration about mineral structure, mass fast spectrometry to help determine a to help o isotope rates.

Research workers announced the particular artifacts were definitely bogus, and yet then farther investigation simply by other sorts of professionals refuted your fakery comments. That thought continues to be unanswered. Chemical make up focuses for isotopic makeup in addition to attractiveness in h2o and dioxide within groundwater dissolving calcite (equilibrium equations provided).

ChemSumer: Liquid Amazingly Displays
November (pp 6–9)

Author: Lois Fruen
Biology Connections:
Relationship, Organic/Biochemistry, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Shares on the subject of computer game titles together with various electronic digital units that will utilize fluid crystal clear demonstrates (LCDs).

Teaches what nectar crystals are—long polar organically grown molecules, the way in which individuals work—they arrange ourselves around a energy area, and yet not far too properly, along with polarizing pictures and additionally polarized light—the operation by just which in turn the liquid crystals really are capable towards transfer (or not) brightness. Talks about twisted nematic aqueous uric acid not to mention coloring demonstrate privacy screens, seeing that properly for the reason that all the long term future in LCDs.

As well parental engagement research paper some sort of sidebar with plasma monitor window screens, which inturn make use of phosphorescent tissue containing commendable un wanted gas this release ultraviolet mild any time thrilled by way of energy, later fantastic typically the electrons on a phosphors to help you result in exposed light.

ChemHistory: There’s Chemical break down throughout The game of golf Balls!
October (pp 15–17)

Author: Brian Rohrig
The field of biology Connections:
Connecting, History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry
Remnants the record from the actual the game of golf softball, through real wood to make sure you featherie to help guttie for you to mass-produced solid-rubber-core-with-rubber-thread-wrap to make sure you typically the pneumatic core in order to the particular myriad compositions with today’s world of golf footballs.

Typically the technology connected with typically the superball is actually awarded by using huge advances throughout golf pitch technology. Details this have just for any essential key the fact that is normally variable in addition to bounces again swiftly just after the application will be attack, and also an outside level that will may deform, dissipating a great deal more associated with your energy involving the particular move.

Looks at vulcanization associated with plastic polymer towards boost coefficient regarding restitution (bounce).

The Wonderful Hartford Show Fire
March (pp 4–7)

Author: Brendan Rimetz
Biochemistry Connections:
Team building, History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry, Typical reactions, Solutions
Informs the track record in your open fire which will killed a Ringling Siblings together with Barnum & Bailey Festival “big top” outdoor tents within September, along with mortally wounded or maybe harmed more or less people.

Aims regarding waterproofing agent, made for paraffin wax together with gas.

Perioperative Caution along with Doing work Bedroom Management

Covers polarity regarding fluids, not to mention non-polarity from gasoline and also paraffin, together with how come this last mentioned only two chemical compounds had been applied to watertight your camping tent canvas, and explains anesthesia biochemistry and biology inside typically the using room in your home document essay synergistic (in the lawsuit, synergistically BAD) issues in utilizing that a couple normal substances collectively, and also the reason firefighters utilising standard water to be able to fit over any hearth were definitely failed.

Tackles moment waterproofing element, along with bit recognized around a make up. Sidebar shows a good survivor’s report. Next sidebar talks about colloidal dispersions towards break up polar in addition to non-polar elements together.

Carb Crazy
August (pp 6–8)

Author: John Rohrig
Chemical make up Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Thermochemistry
Teaches this any chemical system connected with completely different sorts in sugar and additionally its task on cellphone taking in oxygen.

Moreover describes the particular connection of carbohydrates and also bloodstream glucose. Investigates low-carb eating habits together with how many get the job done and additionally ways low-carb diet programs point to be able to ketosis, a change regarding excess weight to make sure you ketones. Gives seasoned and also con research in your value from low-carb weight loss plans pertaining to teenagers.

Lab relating to a fabulous Stick
August (pp 9–12)

Author: Christen Brownlee
Chemical make up Connections:
Acids/Bases, History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry, Response, Solutions
Recounts effort in order to locate an easy-to-use colorimetric urine test with regard to diabetes.

Comprises premature chemical type screening, because of the actual benefit from connected with office assistant (II) sulfate-sodium hydroxide-ammonia reagent, towards the actual enhance designed from Wally Anesthesia chemical break down inside the running room in your home post essay just who merged any reagents into pills kind (called Clinitest), to help the particular customization produced simply by Sally in addition to Ing Free of cost in which ended up being any pills which will researched urine pertaining to ketone body's.

Nursing contribution towards people restorative healing following anesthesia -- Essay Example

Teaches the actual pieces of paper tape try out, even formulated by means of all the Opens, that utilizes sugar and carbohydrates enzymes so that you can try designed for glucose during urine. In due course your cardstock article satire essay introduced simply by any Slides open included 15 assessments for the solo line.

That test out pieces are actually generally known as MultistixSG. Guide incorporates images in this analyze strips. A strong meeting through Sally Absolutely free accepts this article.

MysteryMatters: Anytime Wonderful Discipline Travels Bad!
August (pp 16–18)

Author: Harry Graham
Chemical break down Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions
Review articles the particular research utilised to make sure you convict some grand mother connected with poisoning the girl's kid with the help of ethylene glycol and even points over the best way analytical evaluating will produce incorrect good results.

In addition works on at chemical reactions on the particular person body system that will may well often be made use of in order to determine censor rag essay offer with a human body. Talks about your working from your gasoline chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The good forensic biology article.

Chemsumer: Will Biochemistry Eliminate What the heck is Annoying You?
April (pp 8–10)

Author: Doris Kimbrough
Perception of suffering essay Connections:
Examines huge courses involving insecticides—organochlorines (banned in the U.S.), carbamates, pyrethoids, not to mention organophosphates—their compound structure along with the benefit regarding humankind.

Describes any necessity for acetylcholine for this tense model in individuals along with that simple fact that a few pesticides, like carbamates, remain competitive by using acetylcholine pertaining to the enzyme generally known as acetylcholinesterase in which regulates your degree from acetylcholine through that nervous strategy. Teaches which will carbamates responds through acetylcholinesterase along with steer clear of that because of preventing acetylcholine as well as who acetylcholine build-up for typically the stressed strategy might result in unsafe physical response.

Portrays this unique process simply because the methods by way of which often pests can be harmed, although which usually the software can certainly end up being briefly dangerous to individuals since very well. Remarks the fact that organophosphates can purpose long-term ruin for humans.


It’s Everywhere!
December (pp 4–6)

Author: Gail Haines
Hormone balance Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Nuclear, Reactions
Represents amazing beginning about typically the the majority of generally put to use flavoring, vanilla, suppliers of purely natural not to mention tactics to help synthesize vanillin, substance options involving investigation (authenticate purely natural as opposed to.

synthetic). Side pub identifies nearly all confidential evaluation applying isotopic ratios for as well as that will determine replacement with synthetic vanillin for the purpose of natural.

Chemistry inside any Sunlight
Oct (pp 22–24)

Author: Jeannie Allen
Hormones Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Response, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Thermochemistry
Great and additionally adverse effects involving ozone during all of our atmosphere—blocking UV radiation, adversely impacting on organic paper.

Origins with ozone—volcanoes, consumption fossil heats up. Some other “pollutants” (volatile pure ingredients, VOC, and additionally nitrogen oxides, NOx) as well as his or her's consequences really are described.

Asthma—Attack Through the Air
September (pp 12–13)

Author: Creative crafting small modules london Herlocker
The field of biology Connections:
Organic/Biochemistry, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Presents a check at all the brings about, apparatus not to mention issues about asthma having some sort of stress upon the country's impression on kids.

Details to many things that trigger allergies including pollen, polluting of the environment, dirt, molds in addition to second-hand smoke cigarette smoke seeing that a basic triggers.


Colds, flu and also alternative bacterial infections may furthermore often be leads to. Stresses your tough weblink approximately discuss carbon dioxide and additionally asthma. Data some for your atmospheric chemical substances this may well respond seeing that asthma-causing triggers—sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide monoxide (CO), ground-level ozone (O3) and particulates.