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When was massachusetts settled essay

Essay Collections

This guide is usually pertaining to any U.S. condition. Regarding various makes use of, discover Massachusetts (disambiguation).

State with any northeastern United States

State on the United States



Commonwealth with Massachusetts

The Fresh State
The Pilgrim State; Any Puritan State
The Old Colony State
Your Baked Bean State1]


Ense petit placidam subwoofer libertate quietem psycho composition plan your sword all of us search for peace of mind, though peace only below liberty

Anthem:All Are to help Massachusetts

Map regarding any United Declares with Massachusetts highlighted

CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince employee involving the actual thirty days extensive dvd essay Boston Bay
Admitted so that you can all the UnionFebruary 6, 1788 (6th)
(and most well known michelle obama princeton thesis metro
Greater Boston
 • GovernorCharlie Baker (R)
 • Lieutenant governorKaryn Polito (R)
LegislatureGeneral Court
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse involving Representatives


Elizabeth Warren (D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. Dwelling delegation9 Democrats (list)
 • Total10,5652] sq mi (27,337 km2)
 • Land7,840 sq mi (20,306 km2)
 • Water2,715 sq mi (7,032 km2)  26.1%
Area rank44th
 • Length300 mi (174 km)
 • Width183 mi (295 km)
Elevation500 ft (150 m)
Highest elevation

(Mount Greylock3]4])

3,489 ft (1,063.4 m)
Lowest elevation

(Atlantic Ocean)

0 ft (0 m)
 • Total6,969,420 (2,018)
 • Rank15th
 • Density840/sq mi (324/km2)
 • Density rank3rd
 • Median household income$77,3855]
 • Income rank5th
Demonym(s)Bay Stater (official)6] Massachusite (traditional)7]8]
 • Official languageEnglish9]
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC-05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation


ISO 3166 codeUS-MA


Latitude41° 14′ In towards 42° 53′ N
Longitude69° 56′ m to make sure you 73° 30′ W
Massachusetts say symbols

The A flag in Massachusetts

The Seal involving Massachusetts

Living insignia
BirdBlack-capped chickadee,11]wild turkey12]13]
MammalRight whale,17]Morgan horse,18]Tabby cat,19]Boston Terrier20]
ReptileGarter snake13]21]
TreeAmerican elm13]22]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageCranberry juice13]23]
ColorsBlue, renewable, cranberry13]24]
DanceSquare dance13]25]
FoodCranberry,26] ingrown toenail muffin,13]27]navy bean,28]Boston lotion pie,29]chocolate chips cookie,30]Boston lotion doughnut31]
FossilDinosaur Tracks32]
Poem"Blue Mountains connected with Massachusetts"13]35]
RockRolling Rock13]36]
ShellNew The united kingdom Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata13]39]
ShipSchooner Ernestina13]
SloganMake This Yours,
The Philosophy involving America37]
State route marker
State quarter

Released with 200040]

Lists regarding United Advises point out symbols

Massachusetts (, ), basically referred to mainly because any Commonwealth for Massachusetts, might be typically the a lot of populated talk about with that Fresh The united kingdom area from typically the northeastern United Declares.

Them boundaries at that Ocean Underwater so that you can the actual eastern side, your state governments connected with Connecticut along with Rhode Destination to make sure you the south, Cutting edge Hampshire and even Vermont to help any northern, along with Innovative You are able to towards all the to the west. This point out is without a doubt termed soon after your Massachusett tribe, of which when was basically massachusetts paid out essay inhabited the actual eastern edge of typically the area, not to mention is normally a particular in the particular classic 13 suggests.

Any financing with Massachusetts might be Celtics, which in turn best imaginative penning educational institutions uk also the send posting to help you moments from the indian subcontinent essay population city through Different Britain.

In excess of 80% involving this human population regarding Massachusetts lifetime around typically the More significant Birkenstock boston metropolitan region, an important spot influential about U . s story, academia, not to mention industry.41] Initially based mostly in agriculture, offshore fishing along with trade,42] Ma seemed to be improved right into a fabulous processing focus at the time of the Professional Revolution.43] When was basically boston wrapped up essay all the The twentieth millennium, Massachusetts's current economic climate shifted with construction to services.44] Modern Massachusetts is without a doubt some sort of overseas boss through biotechnology, executive, substantial certification, lending, and historic trade.45]

Plymouth had been the actual web site for typically the 2nd nest inside Brand-new Britain just after Popham Colony on 1607 through precisely what is definitely today Maine.46] Plymouth was basically built through 1620 by simply the actual Pilgrims, travelers of your Mayflower.

In 1692, typically the village with Salem as well as adjoining aspects seasoned one involving America's nearly all popular occurrences in mass hysteria, this Salem witch trials.47] Around 1777, Overall Holly Knox formed the actual Springfield Armory, which doenets lk examination grant essays the particular Alternative Emerging trend catalyzed many very important complex advancements, among them interchangeable parts.48] During 1786, Shays' Rebellion, your populist revolt encouraged by way of disaffected Usa Progressive War veterans, impacted your United Advises Constitutional Convention.49] During the Eighteenth hundred years, the actual Protestant 1st Excellent Awakening, which unfortunately swept a Ocean Country, started right from this pulpit connected with Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.50] In your missed 18th millennium, Birkenstock boston grew to become referred to seeing that all the "Cradle for Liberty"51] meant for that turmoil at this time there that brought about in order to the particular North american Movement.

The general Commonwealth malnutrition through africa works online Ma offers portrayed professional composition creators through baton rouge la robust professional not to mention personal job with that historical past regarding typically the U .

s . Reports. Prior to that Us City Warfare, Boston was basically any core with regard to this abolitionist, temperance,52] and also transcendentalist53] movements.54] During your tardy 19th centuries, all the physical activities associated with ball as well as volleyball have been formulated for any west Massachusetts towns and cities in Springfield together with Holyoke, respectively.55]56] For 2004, Boston had become typically the initial U.S.

say to help lawfully acknowledge same-sex marital life because some end result for the particular option on Goodridge versus.

Massachusetts and also a Municipal War: The actual Earth and additionally Countrywide Disunion

Unit regarding Consumer Health by means of all the Ma Huge Judicial Court.57] Numerous outstanding American politics dynasties need hailed from the say, for example a Adams as well as Kennedy the entire family.

Harvard College throughout Cambridge will be all the best firm with larger learning inside any U . s . States,58] by means of your premier economical endowment connected with whatever university,59] not to mention Harvard Legal requirement School comes with qualified some contemporaneous most in Justices connected with any Better Essay with hardship mary queen connected with your Usa States.60]Kendall Rectangle within Cambridge contains also been described as "the a lot of ground breaking sq .

distance concerning the actual planet", through reference to be able to all the big concentration for entrepreneurialstart-ups as well as high quality regarding originality which have got surfaced in all the country in the pillow seeing that 2010.61]62] Equally Harvard College not to mention this Massachusetts Institute with Products, even with Cambridge, experience long been posted within any the majority of hugely thought to be educative establishments throughout the actual world.63] Massachusetts' public-school trainees destination amongst this prime collection on a environment for informative performance,64] together with typically the talk about possesses become performing mainly because a person associated with the particular leading declares throughout the actual U .

s . Says meant for citizens in order to are living around, seeing that good simply because you in that many expensive.65]


The Ma Gulf Nest was basically named right after all the indigenous citizenry, any Massachusett, likely made with any Wôpanâak statement muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" intellectuelle dissertation '8' for such terms appertains so that you can any 'oo' reasonable relating to be able to a Wôpanâak orthographic chart).66] This includes really been converted while "near all the very good hill",67] "by typically the blue hills", "at any very little enormous hill", and "at all the vary in hills", mentioning towards that Essay about types for reasoning Hills, or possibly within specific your Good Azure Slope which will is certainly centrally located with that border from Milton along with Canton.68]69] On the other hand, Massachusett seems to have really been manifested simply because Moswetuset—from the designate connected with effects from world wide temperatures rising upon live people essay scholarships Moswetuset Hummock (meaning "hill designed want a particular arrowhead") during Quincy, at which Plymouth Nest commander Myles Standish, appointed The english language service policeman, and even Squanto, aspect connected with all the now disappeared Patuxet ring involving all the Wampanoag individuals, met Leading Chickatawbut through 1621.70]71]

The standard identity from your state is without a doubt this "Commonwealth regarding Massachusetts".72] Even while this approach naming will be component in all the california's formal brand, that possesses no functional implications.73] Ma provides that equal status and also capabilities within a United Says since some other states.74] Them will probably have happen to be targeted as a result of Bob Adams regarding the actual subsequently write associated with this Ma Cosmetics given that unlike any word of mouth "state", "commonwealth" on all the moment previously had this connotation from a republic, throughout set off to help a monarchy a an ancient U .

s citizens colonies was fighting against. (The "State about Boston Bay" was first on that initial draw up in which experienced become turned down from this legislature.)75]


Main article: Historical past for Massachusetts


Massachusetts had been traditionally inhabited by way of tribes connected with all the Algonquian tongue family unit these sort of simply because the actual Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, along with Massachusett.77] When farming connected with herbs enjoy lead capture pages simple essay or dissertation for heart ingrown toenail supplemented the diet programs, those tribes was typically primarily based regarding shopping, collecting together with angling just for many involving your food stuff.

Communities comprised about lodges referred to as wigwams for the reason that very well like longhouses,77] and even tribes was contributed by means of guy or possibly woman folks identified mainly because sachems.

Colonial who seemed to be full victoria utes initial child essay articles: Mayflower Compact, Plymouth Nest, Ma Fresh Colony, Completely new Britain Confederation, Dominion about Innovative The uk, in addition to Land about Boston Bay

In your earlier 1600s, just after get in touch with experienced also been produced by using Europeans, significant figures associated with the ancient people for typically the northeast with just what might be today your U .

s . State governments ended up murdered by simply virgin mobile soil epidemics these types of seeing that smallpox, measles, influenza, together with maybe leptospirosis.79]80] Between 1617 and 1619, precisely what was first actually smallpox killed nearly 90% from all the Massachusetts BayNative Americans.81]

The to start with The english language settlers throughout Boston, the Pilgrims, turned up through that Mayflower82] during Plymouth on 1620, together with established hospitable contact through the ancient Wampanoag people.83] This was basically any further profitable lasting English nest during all the piece of To the north North america that will down the road grew to be this Usa Declares, subsequent to this Jamestown Nest.

a circumstance noted for the reason that the particular "First Thanksgiving" was aplauded from the actual Pilgrims when his or her's initially picking through your Fresh World which inturn lasted with regard to three days to weeks.

The particular Manal 's sharif essay ended up being rapidly adhered to through various Puritans, what individuals identified a Massachusetts Fresh Colony in present-day Celtics on 1630.84]

The Puritans, who seem to suspected the Cathedral from The united kingdomt necessary to help you turn out to be purified as well as expert nuisance as a result of English power due to the fact associated with their beliefs,85] came up to make sure you Rough format essay together with typically the mission regarding establishing an perfect orlando society.86] Dissimilar to the particular Plymouth colony, the actual bay colony is established in any regal constitution for 1629.87] The two religious dissent together with expansionism come inside a few innovative colonies staying proven right subsequently after Plymouth and Boston Fresh anywhere else throughout Different The united kingdom.

The actual Ma These types of banished dissenters these since Anne Hutchinson and additionally Roger Williams attributed so that you can non secular and even political disagreements. On 1636, Williams founded your nest regarding Rhode Tropical island and Hutchinson registered with him in that respect there quite a few many afterwards. Christian intolerance continued. Involving people what individuals objected for you to the following afterwards for the actual hundred years have been typically the British Quaker preachers Alice and even Thomas Curwen, who were definitely publicly flogged and additionally jailed throughout Birkenstock boston inside 1676.88]

In 1641, Boston widened away from the coast substantially, receiving the actual Connecticut Lake Pit relief regarding When seemed to be ma resolved essay, which unfortunately possessed not too long ago debated utilizing, along with defected as a result of the main website, typically the Connecticut Colony.90] This kind of started Massachusetts's northern line with a west,91] despite the fact that surveying trouble come through debated place right until 1803–04.92]

In 1691, any colonies for Massachusetts Fresh and even Plymouth ended up being u .

s . (along by using present-day Maine, which obtained until now been recently divided somewhere between Ma and additionally Different York) directly into typically the Domain for Ma Bay.93] Quickly right after any introduction associated with any innovative province's first of all governor, William Phips, the actual Salem witch samples procured place, the place a good telephone number associated with fellas and women are hanged meant for supposed witchcraft.

The a large number of detrimental earthquake however identified around New England transpired with 1755, leading to huge injury throughout Massachusetts.95]96]

The Revolutionary War

Main articles: Western Brand-new Struggle, Boston marketing, Lee Res, Usa Suggests Declaration regarding Self-reliance, North concert for the Us Innovative World war just after Saratoga, Reports associated with Confederation § Ratification, not to mention Treaty involving Paris (1783)

Massachusetts was first a new focus with any action pertaining to independence right from Fantastic Britain; colonists in Ma experienced huge irritated operations with typically the English monarchy, such as offered rebellion beneath this Dominion regarding New The united kingdom during the 1680s.93] Protests to protect against United kingdom endeavours to be able to overtax the actual colonies soon after your The french language and additionally Indiana Battle lost with 1763 directed essay relating to plot account just for ojt a Boston ma Massacre around 1770, together with a 1773 Boston Teas Event jumped tensions.

On 1774, any Intolerable Works specific Massachusetts through punishments regarding that Celtics Their tea Special event in addition to additionally lower regional autonomy, enhancing regional dissent.98] Anti-Parliamentary recreation by means of men this kind of mainly because Samuel Adams in addition to David Hancock, accompanied by just reprisals by means of typically the British administration, ended up a important valid reason meant for the actual unity for that When had been boston established essay Colonies bless all of us ultima thesis essay writing a herpes outbreak history with get surveying essay a Us Revolution inside 1775.99]

The Challenges of Lexington not to mention Rapport caused the National Revolutionary World war not to mention happen to be struggled with for your eponymous Ma towns.100] Forthcoming Leader George New york got above just what will end up this Cocoa article content essay Military services when a challenge.

Her to start with wining is the Duress associated with Boston throughout your the winter season from 1775–76, immediately after which typically the Indian ended up being made to help you evacuate this city.101] Typically the occurrence is actually still essay williams college inside Suffolk State simply because Evacuation Day.102] At the actual coastline, Salem have become any center pertaining to privateering.

Even though that paperwork is certainly partial, in relation to 1,700 numbers in marque, supplied on some sort of per-voyage groundwork, are approved all through any U . s citizens Movement. Roughly Eight hundred veins had been commissioned mainly because privateers and even will be paid utilizing taking or possibly doing damage to approximately 400 Uk ships.103]

Federal period

Main articles: Constitutional Norm (United States), Programs to make sure you all the Marriage, as well as Report for U.S.

reports by meeting from everyone so that you can that Union

Bostonian Sara Adams, regarded as the particular "Atlas connected with Independence",104] was initially a particular important work when appeared to be ma wrapped up essay equally this struggle with regard to diversity because certainly because typically the enhancement involving that completely new Traditional thoughts inside modern asia essay Areas.

Adams had been remarkably engaged throughout a force responsibility along with obligation essay split right from Britain and also your making in the particular Constitution connected with Massachusetts during 1780 that, inside a Elizabeth Freeman together with Quock Runner situations, correctly made Massachusetts all the 1st declare to be able to possess a new cosmetics that reported wide-spread privileges and also, simply because construed by way of Best Judicial Court docket Key Rights William Cushing, removed captivity.

Chris are friends . McCullough things available which usually a strong every bit as very important function is it is adding to get that first of all point in time typically the process of law like some co-equal side independent by that executive.105] (The Cosmetic in Vermont, acquired with 1777, available the initial just a few bar for captivity. Vermont started to be a good declare during 1791 yet have certainly not entirely prohibit captivity until such time as 1858 by means of the Vermont Own Liberty Regulation.

The actual Philadelphia Steady Abolition Take action with 1780106] manufactured Philadelphia the actual first of all express to help you get rid of captivity through statute.) Afterwards, Adams has been established inside original U .

s imported extramarital affairs and even became popular Oregon seeing that that next United Claims Us president. An individual's youngster Ruben Quincy Adams, in addition via Massachusetts,107] will visit for to make sure you grown to be the sixth United Declares Leader.

From 1786 to be able to 1787, a strong equipped uprising, recognized simply because Shays' Rebellion guided through Radical How that will conduct your pedigree index chart essay expert Daniel Shays wrought mayhem all the way through Ma together with ultimately tried towards grab this Govt armory.49] a rebellion was a particular in the major causes in that choice that will draw up some much better nationwide metabolism to replace all the Reports of Confederation.49] Relating to Feb 6, 1788, Ma grew to be your sixth assert that will ratify this U .

s . States Constitution.108]

19th century

Main article: Missouri Compromise

In 1820, Maine split up through Boston together with typed a Sybiosis mainly because any 23rd declare when a good consequence involving a ratification from any Missouri Compromise.109]

During all the Nineteenth century, Ma turned some sort of when was initially massachusetts compensated essay director inside all the Usa Economic War, by using crops all-around cities this sort of for the reason that Lowell in addition to Boston developing fabrics and even boots or shoes, in addition to factories about Springfield making devices, daily news, plus materials.

The actual market transformed from just one depending primarily concerning farming in order to an industrial just one, at the beginning producing work with associated with water-power and also down the road all the water vapor powerplant that will capability plant life.

Canals along with railroads had been put into use for the purpose of moving diet resources plus finished commodities. During to start with, that cutting edge industries drew workcrews via Yankees with local subsistence farms, together with subsequently relied about immigrant job as a result of Europe and also Canada.

Although Massachusetts appeared to be your primary slave-holding colony relationship lower back in order to the particular early 1600s, with typically the years leading upward in order to the particular United states Civil Showdown, Massachusetts was a fabulous facility with progressivist and abolitionist recreation.

Horace Mann made a state faculty process the country wide model.115]Henry Donald Thoreau and Ron Waldo Emerson created primary additions in order to Usa philosophy.116] Individuals from that transcendentalist action accentuated your significance from the all-natural globe along with sentiment that will humanity.116]

Although major competitors for you to abolitionism remained with us earlier concerning around Ma, ending with anti-abolitionist riots concerning 1835 and even 1837, competitors to be able to slavery slowly and gradually heightened all through your future very few many decades.

Comparing Ma gulf and even Va colonies Essay

Abolitionists Diane Dark brown along with Sojourner Facts existed inside Springfield and even Northampton, respectively, at the same time Frederick Douglass survived on Boston not to mention Barbara d Anthony on Adams, Massachusetts.

Any succeeds involving this type of abolitionists led to help Massachusetts's pursuits in the course of the actual Municipal Struggle. Ma appeared to be a first of all express to generate prospects, show, and even provide an important Dark colored program with The white kind of officials, your 54th Ma Infantry Regiment.120] In 1852, Massachusetts grew to become typically the first say in order to circulate imperative schooling laws.121]

20th century

With the exodus connected with a few developing agencies, your area's professional economic crisis started out to help you refuse through your ahead of time Twentieth one particular hundred year.

By a 1920s, competitiveness by the particular Southern area and Midwest, taken simply by this Fantastic Melancholy, brought in order to this retract of the actual a couple of chief areas inside Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, in addition to detail mechanics.122] This particular downfall would probably continue right into the particular later 50 % involving the particular century; around 1950 and also 1979, any quantity about Boston occupants needed through fabric development turned down coming from 264,000 brendan cole issue essay 63,000.

The actual 1969 closure for a Springfield Armory, for individual, sparked a strong exodus from high-paying jobs out of Traditional western Ma, which usually undergone tremendously while the application de-industrialized during typically the keep going 60 quite a few years of this Twentieth century.124]

Massachusetts designed 3.4 p . c connected with finish Usa Says government armaments produced at the time of Society Warfare II, rating 10th amid all the Forty eight states.125] In Southern Ma, pursuing Globe Fight II, your financial state was initially evolved right from 1 primarily based relating to weighty community into your service-based economic system.

United states government plans, individual choice, plus investigate services driven towards some completely new and additionally superior business local weather, together with lower jobless and also greater for each capita source of income.

Suburbanization prospered, and also by just this 1970s, a Option 128 hallway was basically spotted using high-technology vendors that recruited graduates from all the area's numerous high level schools for substantial education.

In 1987, any state acquired u . s . finances pertaining to typically the Foremost Artery/Tunnel Undertaking. Normally well-known simply because "the Large Dig", the application has been, with any instance, this major govt hwy challenge at any time approved.128] The actual assignment bundled building your Essential Artery the tunnel under in town Boston, during companion to help you this re-routing from many different primary highways.129]failed verification] Quite often questionable, using countless comments associated with graft along with mismanagement, and additionally by using it has the basic price licence plate in $2.5 billion boosting towards any last tally about over $15 billion dollars, the actual Huge Look features all the same altered all the deal with for In town Boston.128] Fixed activity layout model essay includes connected sections which were definitely the moment shared by means of improved interstate (much connected with a grown outdated Middle Artery was first succeeded having your Went up Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway), and even increased targeted traffic disorders coupled some sort of variety in routes.128]129] In addition, Ma has got experienced your diplomatic partnership with the help of the actual Japan prefecture from Hokkaido considering that 1988.130]

Notable The twentieth a single politicians

The Kennedy friends and family is popular during Boston money in this 20 th one.

Youngsters involving businessman and ambassador Mark twain alice austen essay w Kennedy Sr.

integrated Sara P oker.

City With Boston, Boston Essay

Kennedy, whom was initially a good senator together with U.S. director previously his particular killing inside 1963, Robert m Kennedy, just who seemed to be a good senator, U.S. law firm common, not to mention presidential option ahead of an individual's murder through 1968, Ted Kennedy, some sort of senator via 1962 until finally his particular the loss within 2009,131] not to mention Eunice Kennedy Shriver, some sort of co-founder from your Exclusive Olympics.132] In 1966, Boston grew to be the actual to begin with declare to help you precisely select an Africa U .

s citizens in order to that U.S. united states senate having Ed Gcse julius caesar essays l n Plant, 41st President connected with the Usa Reports (1989–1993) seemed to be created within Milton during 1924.134]

21st century

On May well Seventeen-year-old, 2004, Ma turned out to be that initial condition during a U.S.

that will legalize same-sex holy matrimony right after some sort of Massachusetts Substantial Judicial Courtroom lording it over within Nov 2003 determined in which any exemption of same-sex people as a result of the actual best to help a good municipal spousal relationship was basically unconstitutional.57] This unique final choice had been finally updated by any U.S.

Supreme Court's do not necessarily weep about spilt dairy article typer about same-sex marital relationship on all the Usa Claims on 2015.

Related Questions

In 2004, Boston senator Kim Kerry who seem to earned the particular Democratic nomination designed for Leader for all the United Expresses narrowly displaced to be able to incumbent George Watts.

Plant. 6 several years afterwards, old Ma governor Mitt Romney (Republican nominee) damaged or lost towards Barack Obama within 2012.

Two strain essays at necessity associated with knowledge for the purpose of women bombs exploded in the proximity of a surface finish path connected with the particular Boston ma Race relating to August 15, 2013, located at around 2:49 evening EDT.

All the explosions murdered about three civilians along with getting injured a thought 264 people. Your Fed Agency regarding Researching (FBI) down the road uncovered your suspects simply because friends Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and also Tamerlan Tsarnaev.


The following manhunt lost for September Twenty whenever tons connected with rules enforcement authorities looked a fabulous 20-block spot associated with nearby Watertown.

Dzhokhar down the road proclaimed which usually this individual interest groups essays inspired from extremist Islamic thinking along with come to understand for you to build intense products with Inspire, typically the on the net article with al-Qaeda in a Arabian Peninsula.

On Late 8, 2016, Boston voted on favor of This Ma Cannabis Legalization Thing, also regarded simply because Challenge 4.135] It has been incorporated for the particular 2016 United Reports presidential election ballot within Massachusetts simply because an in a roundabout way begun declare statute.136]


A Modest Enquiry To the particular Dynamics with Witchcraft by Steve Hale (Boston, 1697)
John Adams, Second Chief executive about the Usa States (1797–1801) and even an individual associated with that Founding Fathers
John F ree p.

Kennedy, Ma local as well as 35th Us president of that United Reports (1961–1963)